The Squat Fix: Screening Overhead Mobility

If I had to single out one exercise that most athletes struggle with, it would be the overhead squat. There are so many variables that could hurt your overhead squat technique.

Recently we discussed how to improve this lift by addressing problems with scapular stability. This week we are going to address another limiting factor, mobility. Mobility/flexibility issues at the thoracic spine, shoulder joint or chest/back can severely limit an athlete’s ability to achieve an overhead squat.

The goal today is to explain two simple screens you can perform at home to illuminate possible overhead mobility issues.

The Supine Lat Stretch Screen

The latissimus dorsi or “lats” is one of the largest muscles in the body. It runs from the lower back all the way to your arms. Athletes (especially bodybuilders) with well-defined lats will often have the classic “V” shape.

When an athlete has stiffness in this muscle it can limit how far they can raise their arm overhead. In his book Movement, physical therapist Gray Cook demonstrated the “Supine Lat Stretch” as a simple way to assess flexibility in this muscle (1).

To start, lie on your back with your arms held above your head. The palms of your hands should be facing the ceiling. Bring your knees towards your chest as far as possible. Your lower back should be completely flat on the ground. From this position, see if you can move your arms (elbows straight) all the way to the floor above your head.

Supine Lat Stretch Pt 1

If you were able to lay your arms completely flat on the floor, you more than likely do not have a lat restriction. If your arms dangled above the floor, the next step is straightening your legs out. Make sure to keep your low back flat on the floor when you do this. Look to see if you can now move your arms closer to the floor above your head.

Supine Lat Stretch Pt 2

What did you find? If you were able to rest your arms on the floor above your head with your legs now extended, it means you have a possible lat flexibility restriction. By straightening out your legs, the lat muscle is more slackened which should allow your arms to travel down closer to the floor.

If you had only a slight improvement in arm movement and were still unable to rest your arms on the ground with your legs extended, a lat and/or posterior chain restriction is a part of the problem (1). This means other factors (stiff muscles/tissues and/or joint restrictions) elsewhere in the body are contributing to poor overhead mobility.

The Wall Angel Screen

If you were able to take a group of kids, most of these kids would be able to reach their arms overhead fully with ease. Whether it’s playing on the handlebars at the jungle gym or climbing a tree, overhead mobility was rarely an issue! However, after years of sedentary lifestyle (sitting at a desk, reading, playing video games, staring at our phones) people develop poor posture.

As a result of years of poor posture, the thoracic spine will stiffen and the pectorals muscles (major and minor) will adaptively shorten. With the Wall Angel screen, it will show if you have any restrictions in gross overhead mobility.

To understand how the mobility of the thoracic spine and pecs affect overhead arm movement, try this simple test. Sit in a slouched position, with your upper back and shoulders rounded forward. Try to raise your arms as far as you can over your head. Now sit up as straight as possible with good posture and raise your arms again. Did you notice a difference?Posture OH Mobility.jpg

When you sit with good posture, you should be able to reach overhead much higher than sitting with crappy posture. You can also lift more weight with good posture.

Good Posutre

To start the screen, find a wall, and stand with your back to it. Your head and entire back should be in contact with the wall. Your feet should be a 4-5 inches from the base.

Next, raise both of your arms to the side in an “L” position (as if you’re making a football goal post with your arms). Without moving your head or lower back from the wall, try to flatten the back of your arms and hands against the wall. Don’t let your lower back pop off the wall!

Wall Angel Screen

To pass, you must have your entire back flat against the wall. The elbows, forearms and hands should be resting comfortably against the wall. Your head should also be in contact with the wall.

If you were unable to touch the entire wall with your arms, where did you feel the restriction? You may have felt tightness in your pecs, mid-back, or both. If so you would benefit from upper body mobility work, which we will discuss next week. If you had pain at any time, seek the advice of a medical professional, as something more serious may need to be addressed. Don’t be alarmed if you failed, this is a difficulty test to pass.

Final Thoughts

It’s clear to see that there are many factors that contribute to overhead mobility. If you can’t move your arms into a good position overhead WITHOUT a barbell, what do you think will happen when you try to perform an overhead squat or snatch?  If you were unable to pass either of these screens, don’t worry! Our goal for this week was to highlight if you had any weak links in your upper body.

If you were able to pass both of these screens, congrats! This means you have good global upper body mobility. You likely don’t need to spend time stretching and mobilizing your upper body. I would recommend spending your valuable time on fixing any other issues that you have in the body. Stay tuned for next week as we will discuss how to improve your overhead mobility!

Until next time,

Dr. Aaron Horschig, PT, DPT, CSCS, USAW


Kevin Photo
Dr. Kevin Sonthana, PT, DPT, CSCS


1) Cook G, Burton L, Kiesel K, Rose G, Bryant M. Movement: Functional Movement Systems. Screening Assessment Corrective Strategies. On Target Publications, 2010.

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13 thoughts on “The Squat Fix: Screening Overhead Mobility

  1. […] The mid to upper back (thoracic spine) is a joint complex that requires mobility. This area of the body is inherently very stable due to the support it helps create with the ribs for our vital organs. However, we all could benefit from increasing our available mobility and flexibility to this region. For most people, the thoracic spine stiffens due to excessive sitting all day at work playing on the computer and smart phone. The majority of Americans have crappy posture. As a result of this crappy posture, it limits ability to perform high level movements, such as the overhead squat and snatch/jerk. Not to mention, poor posture/inflexible thoracic spine raises the risk of shoulder impingements and other shoulder injuries. […]

  2. Hi Aaron,

    I greatly appreciate your helpful content and videos.

    What kinds of stretches would you recommend to improve overhead mobility?

    Also, what stretches/strengthening exercises would recommend to reduce thoracic kyphosis?

    I know that there are many out there on the internet, but I’m aiming for minimalism, time efficiency, and biggest ‘bang for buck’. If you had to choose according to these criteria what would they be? Thanks!

  3. Hi there doc. I’ve been following you for awhile now and I just have to say: PLEASE keep the great work. This is by far the best place I’ve ever found for assisting me with screening and mobility issues.

    When I tried the “THE WALL ANGEL SCREEN” I can’t touch the wall my hands and I feel a great discomfort in my left shoulder (feels like the top of the lat or the teres minor/major area). If I arch my back more than expected I’m able to touch the hand, but, the back of the wrist still is about 2cm from the wall. This leads me to believe that I have a very poor shoulder mobility. However, I can’t find a correct way of improving this. Could you please suggest something? Should I keep trying this until it starts improving? I really appreciate any help and congratulations again.

  4. […] Columna torácica): Es una articulación compleja que requiere de movilidad. Esta area del cuerpo es inherentemente muy estable debido al apoyo que ayuda a crear en conjunto con las costillas para proteger nuestros organos vitales. Sin embargo, todos podemos sacar ventaja de la movilidad y flexibilidad de esta región. Para muchas personas, una Columna torácica rígida es debido a estar mucho tiempo sentado, ya sea trabajando o jugando computador. La mayoría de las personas tiene una mala postura y como resultado están limitado para rendir a un buen nivel, sobre todo en movimientos como el overhead Squat, Snatch, Clean & jerk. Sin mencionar el riesgo de lesión en los hombros que esta puede producir. […]

  5. Amazing content! Really valuable information broken down perfectly. Thanks for taking the time to do this!

  6. Hi Aaron, fantastic content. Thank you so much for sharing. I have a question on the wall angel screen. My elbows, forearms and hands were resting comfortably on the wall, just my right shoulder was a few millimetres off the wall. If the shoulder is off the wall can I deduce that it’s due to tight pec minor / major? Thanks! Georgia

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