Are You Wearing The Right Shoes For Squatting?

The right pair of shoes gave Michael Jordan the edge to lead Bugs Bunny and the rest of the Looney Tunes gang to victory in the 1996 movie Space Jam. For those serious about weight training, choosing the right shoe may help you break any personal records and improve performance.

Walk into any gym today and you’ll find a number of different shoes on peoples feet. Some don running shoes by Nike or Adidas, while others rock the old school Converse “Chuck Taylors”. If the gym you entered happened to be a CrossFit box, you would likely see athletes wear Metcons or Nanos. You might even see some people wearing minimalist shoes (Vibrams) or go barefoot while lifting or squatting!


With so many available options, it can be a daunting task to decide what to wear when you’re in the gym. The purpose of this week’s article is to discuss in detail the different shoes and how it relates to squatting. We’ll then give the pro’s and con’s of each option so you can make the best decision for yourself.

Most of us wouldn’t think of trying to run a marathon in bowling shoes. We also wouldn’t play basketball in baseball spikes! However, when it comes to weight training or barbell squatting, people reach for any tennis shoe without a second thought. Before we jump into different shoes, we need to first understand the purpose of our feet.

The Stable Foot

The feet set the foundation for every single functional movement we perform. Think of the feet like the base to a ‘house of cards’. The feet set the groundwork for the stability of our entire structure. If we want to squat with good technique, we have to pay attention to what is going on at the feet.

Our foot is inherently very mobile. With over 25 bones spread across 4 different joints, the foot is capable of a lot of movement. However, when we squat, we need to instantly create stability at the foot. The neutral arched position is the most stable position we can create.


The choice of footwear (or lack there of) during barbell training must compliment and support this arched stance. Without a stable foot the entire foundation for our bodies movement will collapse.

Minimal Shoes

The first shoe we will discuss is the one that has the least to it, aka “barefoot” footwear. While the first versions of these include the Vibram five-fingers shoe, newer manufactures like Bearfoot Athletics have come out with more lifting specific models in the past few years. These shoes provide the sensation of training barefoot while offering a small amount of protection to the feet. The idea behind using a minimalist shoe like this is to enhance the sensation of position and movement of the foot to a greater degree. Therefore a shoe like this allows the lifter to regain the conscious control of foot stability. They also provides a good option to the athlete who wants to squat barefoot but has to wear shoes at their gym.

Research has shown that minimal footwear is even related to increased strength and size (hypertrophy) of the muscles of the foot (8). When compared to a cross trainer shoe (such as your Reebok Nano or Nike Metcon), the barefoot or minimalist type shoe has been shown to provide a more stable base during the squat (9). 

I personally love the Ursus shoe by Bearfoot athletics. They have a very wide toe box that allows you to naturally splay your toes out and use your foot like it was designed. If you would like to pick up a pair of their shoes be sure to use the code “SquatU” for 10% off your order.

The Classic Running Shoe

If you’re training to run a 5K, it’s a great idea to find a good pair of running shoes. With that said, running shoes are NOT the best choice for weight lifting. Experts claim that squatting with the soft compressible sole of these shoes is basically like trying to lift while standing on a giant marshmallow (1).

The running shoe is constructed to absorb and dissipate forces that occur when the foot makes contact with the ground. This reduces the impact shock that would eventually cause injury while running (2). When squatting, we don’t want a gel or air based sole. These shoes will decrease the ability to maintain a stable connection to the floor. When lifting heavy weights, the compressible running shoe will not be able to support that neutral arch foot that we talked about earlier.

Running ShoeRunning shoes are great for running. On that note, when you’re attempting a 3 RM or 1 RM squat, you do NOT want to be wearing your go to Asics or Brooks. Leave the running shoes for the runners.

Weightlifting Shoe

As the name suggests, these shoes can be a great choice for anyone interested in the sport of weightlifting. The International Weighlifting Federation (IWF) states the purpose of these shoes are to protect lifters feet from falling weights while also providing a stable firm surface (5).

Nike WeightliftingThese shoes are designed with a stiff, non-compressible sole with a distinguished raised heel (usually made of wood or a plastic composite with a rubber bottom to prevent sliding). Most weightlifting shoes will have a raised heel of approximately 2.5 cm (3). While these shoes are well known by weightlifters across the world, they are still generally unfamiliar to everyday gym-goers.

Weightlifting shoes are beneficial in a number of ways. The first thing you’ll notice when you put on a pair of these shoes is the ability to squat deeper while maintaining a more upright chest position. This is due to the raised heel.


During the descent of the squat the knees need to eventually move forward toward the toes. This allows the hips to descend to the greatest depth possible. The further the knees can translate forward at the bottom of the squat the more upright the chest can remain while still staying balanced. This allows for better technique in lifts such as the front squat or overhead squat.

By keeping the torso more upright, less harmful forces are sustained at the low back (4). While a certain amount of forward trunk lean is necessary at times to stay balanced (especially with the low-bar back squat), you should attempt to keep the chest as upright as possible in order to minimize shear forces in the low back (4,6). Therefore, individuals who have a history of low back pain or want to reduce the stress to this area would benefit from wearing this type of shoe when squatting.

Weightlifting shoes can help keep the foot in a stable position during the squat. A raised heel actually keeps the foot in a neutral arched position (11). It also decreases tension in muscles that often become stiff in the lower leg (lateral gastrocnemius, soleus and peroneals) (12). For this reason, these shoes are great for anyone who has poor ankle mobility. Combined, these benefits limit the potential for technique errors such as the well-known valgus knee collapse.

Heel Raised

Shoe Close Up
The weightlifting shoe raises the heel just like stepping on small plates.

While a good pair of these shoes were once hard to come by for less than $130, there are a number of companies jumping on board in recent years with options for less than $80. Bottom line, these shoes are a great investment for any athlete, regardless of experience level. They have been shown to enhance squat technique, boost performance and reduce harmful joint stresses. You don’t have to be an Olympic weightlifter or CrossFit athlete to own a pair of weightlifting shoes. If you have any desire to squat heavy weight, these shoes are the way to go and well worth the money.

Side Note: I recently developed with TYR the first WIDE TOE BOX weightlifting shoe. Unfortunately one of the down sides to weightlifting shoes (and most shoes produced by modern manufactures today) is they are all WAY too narrow. The foot functions best when the toes can splay out and up until now, there have been no weightlifting shoes with a raised heel AND wide toe box. While I love squatting barefoot (as you’ll come to read about later) I perform all of my olympic lifts with these shoes! (GET YOURS HERE) 

Flat Sole Shoes

If you compete in powerlifting, more than likely you have seen some athletes rock a pair of Chuck Taylors. The non-compressible rubber sole of this shoe provides support without breaking the bank (these shoes typically run for about $50). Chuck Taylors are terrible for running but for squatting, they’re not so bad.

ChucksThis shoe offers a flat sole or a 0 mm drop (compared to the ~20 mm drop seen with the raised heel of the weightlifting shoe). This is the measured difference between the heel height and the forefoot height. This shoe therefore does not give any aid for those with limited ankle mobility. For this reason, if an athlete has stiff ankles and decides to use this shoe to perform any of the olympic lifts (or a squat that requires a more forward knee position and an upright chest) they could run into some problems.

However, these shoes (just like the minimalist shoe from above) do work very well for a variety of other lifts including the low-bar back squat. This variation allows athletes to manipulate joint torque production in order to lift more weight than any other squat technique. By sitting the hips back to a greater degree, the knees are not required to move forward nearly as far. For this reason, flat sole shoes (like Chuck Taylors) are a great choice for anyone interested in using the low-bar back squat! If you’re doing fine with Chuck Taylors when front squatting or high bar back squatting, by all means, stick with it

The main drawback to this shoe is how narrow the toe base is. I recommend watching my YouTube video linked above to see why this is such a problem if you are serious about weight training! 

Cross Trainer Shoes

In 1987 Nike changed the shoe industry when it released the Air Trainer I, the first cross training shoe. These shoes, designed for any workout, was spreading life fire due to the Bo Knows campaign (YouTube/Google Bo Jackson if you have no idea who he is).

With the recent rise in CrossFit, we have seen an emergence of cross trainer shoes designed specifically for the weight room. These shoes offer good support and a small heel drop (usually 3-4 mm).

MetconThe most popular cross trainer shoes are the Nike Metcons and the Rebook Nanos. While there is limited research specifically on these shoes, we do know what they can offer.

First, these shoes are a great alternative to your basic running shoe. The sole of these shoes are not made with air or gel and therefore will not compress. On the other hand the 4mm drop of these shoes are much smaller compared to that of the weightlifting shoe and therefore do not provide much help for athletes with stiff ankles.


NanoFor CrossFitters, this is a great shoe especially for the practicality of moving from a barbell movement to box jumps, burpees, or short runs. However if you’re your goal is to solely perform barbell squats and/or Olympic lifts, the weightlifting shoe is by far the superior option.

Barefoot Squatting

In recent years barefoot weight training has increased in popularity. Barefoot advocators suggest that ditching the sneakers will help with balance and stability. With the feet in greater contact with the floor, the thought is that the body can sense the position and movement of the foot to a greater degree. Much like wearing a pair of thick gloves, wearing shoes all the time is also believed to diminish the sensation and awareness of your feet. By going barefoot the goal is to then regain the conscious control of foot stability.

I personally have been squatting barefoot or with a minimalist shoe like the Ursus from Bearfoot Athletics for the past year and absolutely love it. It does take some time to get used to if you have squatted in a weightlifting shoe for years. You may also note a small decrease in performance as you learn to squat without shoes. But for some athletes, the increased awareness of your foot stability can enhance your technique quality and eventual performance. For example, en route to squatting 1,000 lbs for three reps, Chris Duffin mentioned that squatting barefoot was a performance enhancer as it allowed him to feel balanced and fully “rooted” to the ground. 

One thing to consider when deciding whether to squat barefoot is whether you have the prerequisite amount of mobility to maintain balance. Because you will not have any assistance for ankle mobility from a heeled shoe, most people will have to lean further forward with their chest in order to stay balanced (7). From a technique perspective, barefoot training may not be ideal for some athletes who need to maintain a very upright trunk during their squat. This would include anyone performing the high-bar back squat, front squat or overhead squat.

Final Thoughts

Your choice of footwear should be tailored to your personal goals. If you have any doubts, consider speaking with a certified strength and conditioning expert or a sports/orthopedic physical therapist.

Until next time,

Dr. Aaron Horschig, PT, DPT, CSCS, USAW


Kevin Photo
Dr. Kevin Sonthana, PT, DPT, CSCS


  1. Kilgore L & Rippetoe M. Weightlifting shoes 101. Available at: Accessed April 20, 2016.
  2. McKenzie DC, Clement DB, & Taunton JE. Running shoes, orthotics, and injuries. Sports Medicine. Sept 1985, 2(5); 334-347.
  3. Sato K, Fortenbaugh D, & Hydock DS. Kinematic changes using weightlifting shoes on barbell back squat. JSCR. 2012; 26(1):28-33
  4. Garhammer J. Weight lifting and training. Biomechanics of Sports. C.L. Vaughan, ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1989. Pp. 169-211
  5. International Weightlifting Federation. Technical and competition rules. Available at: Accessed April 25th, 2016.
  6. Schoenfeld BJ. Squatting kinematics and kinetics and their application to exercise performance. JSCR. January 2010; 24(12):3497-506.
  7. Sato K, Fortenbaugh D, Hydock DS, & Heise GD. Comparision of back squat kinematics between barefoot and shoe conditions. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching. Nov 2013; 8(3): 571-579
  8. Bruggemann GP, Potthast W, Braunstein B & Niehoff A. Effect of increased mechanical stimulation on foot muscles functional capacity. ISB XXth Congress – ASB 29th Annual Meeting. July 31 – August 5, Cleveland, Ohio
  9. Shorter K, Lake J, Smith N & Lauder M. Influence of the foot-floor interface on squatting performance. Portuguese Journal of Sport Sciences. 2001; 11:385-388
  10. Sinclair J, McCarthy D, Bentley I, Hurst HT & Atkins S. The influence of different footwear on 3-D kinematics and muscle activation during the barbell back squat in males. European Journal of Sport Science. 2014; 00(00):1-8.
  11. Power V & Clifford AM. The effects of rearfoot position on lower limb kinematics during bilateral squatting in asymptomatic individuals with a pronated foot type. Journal of Human Kinetics. 2012; 31:5-15
  12. Hirth CJ. Clinical movement analysis to identify muscle imbalances and guide exercise. Athlet Ther Today. 2007; 12(4):10-14

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44 thoughts on “Are You Wearing The Right Shoes For Squatting?

  1. Nice summary guys!

    As a coach I find that cueing an individual into proper foot-knee-hip alignment is often easiest by cueing their foot position, and this of course is easiest to do when they aren’t wearing shoes. I often start my novices, or poorly aligned individuals in bare feet.

    Once they have competency in a movement I move them to the appropriate footwear like you outlined.

    Personally, I tend to deadlift in chuck’s since heel lift isn’t needed, but I squat with cross trainers since I could use a little ankle mobility.

    Nice article!

  2. Converse have a new Lunarion sole, is this still good for gyming. Is it safe for me to take out the sole all together and gym like that?

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  4. I did not know this. This is very interesting information I will share with runners who ask me if they can weight train in their running shoes. Thanks.

  5. Was it the shoes? Or Bugs’ “Secret Stuff”? Either way, I see where you were going. Great article.

  6. Awesome article, very informative. I was squatting barefoot, and even reached out to Aaron to check my form… in the meantime I read this article and bought Adipower weightlifting shoes… and Wow! what a difference it made for me. Took a little weight off the bar and put the shoes on, feels like the form is much better than it was before! Probably would have not made the purchase had I not found this article, so this was a huge help!

  7. That is great shoes for my feet. I have a problem with tendon and I couldn’t squat well. That’s why I need special trainers and I buy them here at the site and acquire the best boots for your poor feet.

  8. Took me eight years of lifting before I decided to get a pair of weightlifting shoes. After a single workout in my new shoes, I felt like a total idiot for not getting them sooner.

    Good point about runners having no problem getting running shoes, but lifters often dragging their heels when it comes to getting lifting shoes.

  9. I don’t understand this. If you don’t have ankle mobility, doesn’t it make more sense to improve that, and learn to squat correctly, before adding weight?

  10. Thanks for this article, I am a beginner at 5×5 stronglifts and been doing my workout with Chucks and running shoes. I have limited ankle mobility which I am trying to overcome with stretching. I needed this to decide on if I should invest in weight lifting shoes as I will be reaching 200lbs. I guess I should get a pair 🙂


  11. I love all of of your content you thought me so much and I am grateful!

    Would recommend an wide toe box shoe for running as well?


  12. Love your approach to lifting. You have a user friendly way of speaking to the average joe.

  13. When it comes to squats, the right shoes make all the difference. They’re not just a fashion statement, but a game-changer for your performance and safety. The link shared in the article, 20,000 Steps a Day, takes you on a journey to discover the magic of proper footwear.

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  15. I’ve picked up a pair of minimalistic shoes from Run United ( ) and those feel absolutely amazing on deadlifts and everything outside of squat. My ankle mobility is just not there, hence why I’m planning on picking up a pair of TORs once those are back in stock 😀

  16. Wow, what a game-changer article! 🏋️‍♂️💡 As a fellow fitness enthusiast, I thought I had my squat technique nailed down, but this post opened my eyes to a whole new world of importance when it comes to choosing the right shoes. 🚀👟 The way you break down the science behind footwear and its impact on squat mechanics is simply mind-blowing. 👨‍🔬🧠 And the best part? You deliver this wealth of knowledge in such a relatable and friendly manner. 👏🤗 From now on, I’ll be paying much more attention to my shoe selection before hitting the squat rack. Thanks, Squat University, for another enlightening gem! Can’t wait to elevate my squat game and crush those PRs! 🏆👊

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